Comparison between Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) Methods to Identify Meteorological Drought in West Papua

  • Arif Faisol Universitas Papua
  • Budiyono Budiyono Universitas Papua


The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) methods have been widely used to monitor meteorological droughts, especially in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the SPI and SPEI methods in identifying meteorological drought in West Papua. This research consists of 3 (three) main stages, i.e., climate data inventory acquired from 1996 to 2020, drought level analysis using SPI and SPEI methods, and comparison SPI and SPEI drought index. The results showed that the drought level in West Papua is moderately dry to moderately wet based on the SPI method, and near normal to moderately wet based on the SPEI method. Generally, the SPI and SPEI methods have a strong correlation in analyzing drought in West Papua although in some periods there were significant differences in index values.


Ariyanto, D. P. et al. (2020) ‘Comparing the Accuracy of Estimating Soil Moisture using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)’, Sains Tanah, 17(1), pp. 23–29. doi: 10.20961/stjssa.v17i1.41396.
Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (2021) Proyeksi Perubahan Iklim. Available at:
BMKG (2018) The Standardized Precipitation Index. Available at: (Accessed: 7 November 2018).
Byun, H.-R. and Wilhite, D. A. (1999) ‘Objective Quantification of Drought Severity and Duration’, American Meteorological Society, 12(September), pp. 2747–2756.
European Drought Observatory (2019) Standardized Precipitation Index ( SPI ).
Funk, C. C. et al. (2014) A Quasi-Global Precipitation Time Series for Drought Monitoring. 1st edn. Virginia.
Goddard Space Flight Center (2013) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Science Implementation Plan. Greenbelt: NASA.
Guttman, N. B. (1999) ‘Accepting The Standardized Precipitation Index: a Calculation Algorithm’, Journal of The American Water Resource Association, 35(2), pp. 311–322.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1992) Climate change, World Meteorological Organization. Canada. doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-2280-1_3.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2022) Climate Change 2022 : Mitigation of Climate Change, World Meteorological Organization.
Lloyd-Hughes, B. and Saunders, M. A. (2002) ‘A Drought Climatology for Europe’, International Journal of Climatology, 22(3), pp. 1571–1592. doi:
National Center for Atmospheric Research Staff (2020) The Climate Data Guide: Precipitation Data Sets: Overview & Comparison table, Agustus. Available at: (Accessed: 30 September 2020).
Ogunrinde, A. T., Olasehinde, D. A. and Olotu, Y. (2020) ‘Assessing the sensitivity of standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index to three potential evapotranspiration models in Nigeria’, Scientific African. Elsevier B.V., 8, p. 16p. doi: 10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00431.
Palmer, W. C. (1965) Meteorological Drought. Washington D.C.
Palmer, W. C. and Havens, A. V. (1958) ‘a Graphical Technique for Determining Evapotranspiration By the Thornthwaite Method’, Monthly Weather Review, 86(4), pp. 123–128. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1958)086<0123:agtfde>;2.
Salehnia, N. et al. (2017) ‘Estimation of Meteorological Drought Indices based on AgMERRA Precipitation Data and Station-observed Precipitation Data’, Journal of Arid Land, 9(October), pp. 797–809. doi: 10.1007/s40333-017-0070-y.
Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Begueria, S. and Lopez-Moreno, J. I. (2009) ‘A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming : The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index’, Journal of Climate, 23, pp. 1696–1718. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2909.1.
Weather National Service (2020) United States Drought Information.
World Meteorological Organization (2012) Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices, WMO-No. 134.
World Meteorological Organization (2016) Handbook of Drought Indicators and Indices. 2nd edn. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization and Global Water Partnership.
Yunus, R. et al. (2019) Katalog Desa/ Kelurahan Rawan Kekeringan. 1st edn. Edited by Wartono. Jakarta: Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana.
Statistik Abstract view : 101 times
Statistik PDF Views : 95 times
How to Cite
FAISOL, Arif; BUDIYONO, Budiyono. Comparison between Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) Methods to Identify Meteorological Drought in West Papua. Agritechnology, [S.l.], v. 5, n. 2, p. 74-88, apr. 2023. ISSN 2620-4738. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 sep. 2023. doi: